3 Prayer

3.1 The Call to Prayer

1 Yahya related to me from Malik that Yahya ibn Sa’id said, “The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had wanted to take twopieces of wood to strike them together to gather people for the prayer, and’Abdullah ibn Zayd al-Ansari, of the tribe of Harith ibn al-Khazraj, wasshown two pieces of wood in his sleep. He said, ‘These are close to whatthe Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wants.’Then it was said, ‘Do you not call to the prayer?’ so when he woke up hewent to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,and mentioned the dream to him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, ordered the adhan.”

[Also in Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah]

2 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from ‘Ata’ibn Yazid al-Laythi from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you hear the adhan,repeat what the mu’adhdhin says.”

[cf. Bukhari 586]

3 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawla ofAbu Bakr ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman, from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stated, “If people only knew whatwas in the call to prayer and the first row, and could find no other wayto get it than drawing lots for it, they would draw lots for it. If theyonly knew what was in going early to the prayer, they would race each otherto get there. And if they only knew what was in the prayers of‘Isha’ and Subh, they would come to them even if they had tocrawl.”

[cf. Bukhari 590]

4 Yahya related to me from Malik from al-‘Ala’ ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahmanibn Ya’qub from his father and Ishaq ibn ‘Abdullah that they informed himthat they heard Abu Hurayra say, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, said, ‘When the iqama is called for prayer,do not come to it running, but come with calmness. Pray what you catch andcomplete what you miss. You are in prayer as long as your aim is the prayer.'”

[cf. Bukhari 610]

5 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn’Abdullah ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abu Sa’sa’a al-Ansari, and later al-Mazini,that his father told him that Abu Sa’id al-Khudri had said to him, “I seethat you love sheep and the desert. When you are among your sheep or in thedesert, call the prayer and raise your voice in the adhan, becauseI heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,say, ‘No jinn or man or anything within range hears the voice of themu’adhdhin without bearing witness for him on the Day of Rising.'”

[cf. Bukhari 584]

6 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad from Al-A’rajfrom Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, said, “When the call to prayer is made Shaytan retreats, passingwind, so that he will not hear it. When the adhan is completed hecomes back, until, when the iqama is said, he retreats again. Whenthe iqama is completed, he comes back, until he comes between a manand his self and says, ‘Think of such and such, think of such and such,’which he was not thinking about before, until the man does not know how muchhe has prayed.”

[cf. Bukhari 583]

7 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Hazim ibn Dinar that Sahl ibn Sa’das-Sa’idi said, “There are two times when the gates of heaven are opened,and few who make supplication have it returned to them unanswered. They areat the time of the adhan, and in a rank of people fighting in theway of Allah.”

[Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Barr said that most transmitters of the Muwatta’ consider thisto be mawquf]

Malik was asked whether the adhan on the day of Jumu’a was called beforethe time had come for the prayer and he said, “It is not called until afterthe sun has passed the meridian.”

Malik was asked about doubling the adhan and the iqama, and at whatpoint people had to stand when the iqama for the prayer was called. He said,”I have heard nothing about the adhan and iqama except what I have seen peopledo. As for the iqama, it is not doubled. That is what the people ofknowledge in our region continue to do. As for people standing up when theiqama for the prayer is called, I have not heard of any definite point atwhich it is begun, and I consider it rather to be according to people’s(individual) capacity, for some people are heavy and some are light, andthey are not able to be as one man.”

Malik was asked about a gathering of people who wished to do the prescribedprayer calling the iqama and not the adhan, and he said, “It is enough forthem. The adhan is only obligatory in mosques where the prayer is said incongregation.”

Malik was asked about the mu’adhdhin saying “Peace be upon you” to the imamand calling him to the prayer, and he was asked who was the first personto whom such a greeting was made. He replied, “I have not heard that thisgreeting occurred in the first community.”

Yahya said that Malik was asked whether a mu’adhdhin who called the peopleto prayer and then waited to see if anyone would come and no one did, sohe said the iqama and did the prayer by himself and then people came afterhe had finished, should repeat the prayer with them. Malik said, “He doesnot repeat the prayer, and whoever comes after he has finished should dothe prayer by himself.”

Yahya said that Malik was asked about a mu’adhdhin who called theadhan for a group of people, did voluntary prayers, and then the groupof people wanted to do the prayer with some one else saying the iqama. Hesaid, “There is no harm in that. His iqama or somebody else’s arethe same.”

Yahya said that Malik said, “The Subh prayer is still called beforedawn. As for the other prayers, we believe that they should only be calledafter the time has started.”

8 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the mu’adhdhin cameto ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab to call him to the Subh prayer and found him sleeping,so he said, “Prayer is better than sleep,” and ‘Umar ordered him to put thatin the adhan for Subh.

9 Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malikthat his uncle’s father said, “I recognise nothing nowadays of what I sawthe people (i.e. the companions of the Messenger, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace) doing except the call to prayer.”

10 Yahya related to me from Malik that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar heard theiqama while he was in Baqi’*, so he increased his pace of walkingto the mosque.

[* Baqi’ is the graveyard of Madina, about three hundred yards from the mosque.]

3.2 The Adhan on a Journey and without Wudu’

11 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullahibn ‘Umar called the adhan on a cold and windy night and included the phrase,”Pray in your houses.” Then he said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, used to order the mu’adhdhin to say, ‘Pray in yourhouses’ when it was a cold, rainy night.”

[cf. Bukhari 606]

12 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that on a journey ‘Abdullahibn ‘Umar did no more than the iqama, except for Subh, when he calledboth the adhan and the iqama. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar used to say,”The adhan is for an imam whom people join [for the prayer].”

13 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that his father saidto him, “When you are on a journey you can, if you wish, call the adhan andthe iqama, or, if you wish, the iqama and not the adhan.”

Yahya said that he heard Malik say, “There is no harm in a man calling theadhan while riding.”

14 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that Sa’id ibn al-Musayyabused to say, “If someone prays in waterless, desolate land, an angel prayson his right and an angel prays on his left. When he calls both theadhan and the iqama for the prayer, or calls out theiqama, mountains of angels pray behind him.”

[mursal]

3.3 The Meal before Dawn (Sahur) in Relation to the Adhan

15 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abdullah ibn Dinarfrom ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “Bilal calls the adhan whilst it is stillnight so eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan.”

[cf Bukhari 1819]

16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salimibn ‘Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, said, “Bilal calls the adhan in the night, so eat and drinkuntil Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan.” Ibn Umm Maktum was a blindman who did not call the adhan until someone said to him, “The morning hascome. The morning has come.”

[cf Bukhari 592]

3.4 The Opening of the Prayer

17 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salimibn ‘Abdullah from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, used to raise his hands to the level of hisshoulders when he began the prayer and when he raised his head from the ruku’he raised them in the same way, saying, “Allah hears whoever praises him,our Lord and praise belongs to You.” He did not do that in the sujud.

[cf Bukhari 702]

18 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that ‘Ali ibn Husayn ibn’Ali ibn Abi Talib said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, used to say, ‘Allah is greater’ whenever he lowered himselfand raised himself, and he continued to pray like that until he met Allah.”

[mursal]

19 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from Sulayman ibnYasar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,used to raise his hands in the prayer.

20 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from AbuSalama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Awf that Abu Hurayra used to lead them inprayer and would say “Allah is greater” whenever he lowered himself and raisedhimself. When he had finished he would say, “By Allah, I am the person whoseprayer most resembles the prayer of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace.”

[cf Bukhari 752]

21 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn ‘Abdullahthat ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar used to say “Allah is greater” in the prayer wheneverhe lowered himself and raised himself.

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar used toraise his hands to the level of his shoulders when he began the prayer andwhen he came up from ruku’ he would raise them less than that.

[In Abu Dawud]

22 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Nu’aym Wahb ibn Kaysan that Jabiribn ‘Abdullah used to teach them the takbir in the prayer. Abu Nu’aymsaid, “He used to tell us to say ‘Allah is greater’ whenever we lowered orraised ourselves.”

23 Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab used to say, “When a mancatches the rak’a he says, ‘Allah is greater’ once, and that takbir is enoughfor him.”

Malik added, “That is if he intended to begin the prayer by that takbir.”

Malik was asked about a man who began with the imam but forgot the openingtakbir and the takbir of the ruku’ until he had done one rak’a. Then heremembered that he had not said the takbir at the opening nor in theruku’, so he said the takbir in the second rak’a. He said, “I preferthat he start his prayer again, but if he forgets the opening takbir withthe imam and says the takbir in the first ruku’, I consider that enough forhim if he intends by it the opening takbir.”

Malik said about someone who prayed by himself and forgot the opening takbir,”He begins his prayer afresh.”

Malik said about an imam who forgot the opening takbir until he had finishedhis prayer, “I think that he should do the prayer again, and those behindhim, even if they have said the takbir.”

3.5 The Recitation of Qur’an in the Maghrib and ‘Isha Prayers

24 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Muhammadibn Jubayr ibn Mut’im that his father said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite at-Tur (sura 52) inthe Maghrib prayer.”

[cf Bukhari 731]

25 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from’Ubaydullah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Utba ibn Mas’ud from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbasthat Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith heard him reciting al-Mursalat (sura77) and she said to him, “My son, you have reminded me by reciting this surathat it was what I last heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, recite in the Maghrib prayer.”

[cf Bukhari 729]

26 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu ‘Ubayd, the mawla of Sulaymanibn ‘Abd al-Malik, from ‘Ubada ibn Nusayy from Qays ibn al-Harith that Abu’Abdullah as-Sunabihi said, “I arrived in Madina in the khalifate of AbuBakr as-Siddiq, and I prayed Maghrib behind him. He recited the Ummal-Qur’an and two suras from the shorter ones of the Mufassalin the first two rak’as. Then he stood up in the third and I drew so nearto him that my clothes were almost touching his clothes. I heard him recitingthe Umm al-Qur’an and this ayat, ‘Our Lord, do not make our hearts deviateafter You have guided us. And give us mercy from You. You are theEver-Giving.’” (3:8).

27 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto recite in all four rak’as when he prayed alone – in every rak’a theUmm al-Qur’an and another sura from the Qur’an. Sometimes he would recitetwo or three suras in one rak’a in the obligatory prayer. Similarly, he recitedthe Umm al-Qur’an and two suras in the first two rak’as of Maghrib.

28 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from’Adi ibn Thabit al-Ansari that al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib said, “I prayed ‘Isha’with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,and he recited at-Tin (sura 95) in it.”

[cf Bukhari 733]

3.6 Behaviour in the Recitation

29 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ from Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdullah ibnHunayn from his father from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade wearing the qassi(an Egyptian garment, striped with silk), wearing gold rings, and recitingthe Qur’an in ruku’.

[Also in Muslim]

30 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from Muhammad ibnIbrahim ibn al-Harith at-Taymi from Abu Hazim at-Tammar from al-Bayadi thatthe Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came outto the people while they were praying and their voices were raised in therecitation. He said, “When you pray you are talking confidentially to yourLord. So look to what you confide to Him, and do not say the Qur’an out loudso that others hear it.”

[A similar hadith is reported from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri by Abu Dawud]

31 Yahya related to me from Malik from Humayd at-Tawil that Anas ibn Maliksaid, “I stood behind Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and ‘Uthman and none of them usedto recite ‘In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful’when they began the prayer.”

[Muslim]

32 Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibnMalik that his father said, “We heard the recitation of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattabwhen we were at the home of Abu Jahm in al-Balat.” (Al-Balat was a placein Madina between the mosque and the market.)

33 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that when ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umarmissed anything of a prayer in which the imam had recited out loud, he wouldstand up when the imam had said the taslim and recite what he owedout loud by himself.

34 Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Ruman said, “I used to praynext to Nafi’ ibn Jubayr ibn Mut’im and he would nudge me to prompt him whilewe were praying.”

3.7 The Recitation in the Subh Prayer

35 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father thatAbu Bakr as-Siddiq prayed Subh and recited Surat al-Baqarain the two rak’ats.

36 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that his father heard’Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Rabi’a say, “We prayed Subh behind ‘Umar ibnal-Khattab and he recited Surat Yusuf (sura 12) and Surat al-Hajj (sura 22) slowly.”

“I (Hisham’s father) said, ‘By Allah, then it must have been his habit toget up at the crack of dawn.’ He said, ‘Of course. ‘

37 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id and Rabi’a ibn Abi’Abd ar-Rahman from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad that al-Furafisa ibn ‘Umayr al-Hanafisaid, “I only learnt Surat Yusuf (sura 12) from the recitation ofit by ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan in the Subh prayer because of the great number oftimes he repeated it to us.”

38 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto recite the first ten suras of the Mufassal in the Subh prayer,and on a journey he would recite the Umm al-Qur’an and a surain every rak’a.

3.8 The Umm al-Qur’an

39 Yahya related to me from Malik from al-‘Ala’ ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ya’qubthat Abu Sa’id, the mawla of ‘Amir ibn Kurayz, told him that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called to ‘Ubayy ibn Ka’bwhile he was praying. When ‘Ubayy had finished his prayer he joined the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Messenger of Allahput his hand upon his hand, and he was intending to leave by the door ofthe mosque, so the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, “I hope that you will not leave the mosque until you know asura whose like Allah has not sent down in the Torah nor in the Gospek norin the Qur’an.” ‘Ubayy said, “I began to slow down my pace in the hope ofthat. Then I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, the sura you promised me!’ He said,’What do you recite when you begin the prayer?’ I recited the Fatiha(sura 1) until I came to the end of it, and the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘It is this sura, andit is the “Seven Oft-Repeated” and the “Great Qur’an” which I was given.'”

[al-Bukhari has this story from Abu Sa’id al-Mu’alla)

40 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Nu’aym Wahb ibn Kaysan that heheard Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah say, “Someone who prays a rak’at without recitingthe Umm al-Qur’an in it has not performed the prayer, unless he ispraying behind an imam.”

3.9 Reciting to Oneself behind the Imam when He does not Recite Aloud

41 Yahya related to me from Malik from al-‘Ala’ ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ya’qubthat he heard Abu’s-Sa’ib, the mawla of Hisham ibn Zuhra, say he had heardAbu Hurayra say, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, say, ‘Someone prays a prayer without reciting the Umm al-Qur’anin it, his prayer is aborted, it is aborted, it is aborted, incomplete. SoI said, ‘Abu Hurayra, sometimes I am behind the imam.’ He pulled my forearmand said, ‘Recite it to yourself, O Persian, for I heard the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say that Allah the Blessed,the Exalted, said, “I have divided the prayer into two halves between meand my slave. One half of it is for Me and one half of it is for My slave,and My slave has what he asks for.”‘ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, said, “Recite.” The slave says, ‘Praise be to Allah,the Lord of the Worlds.’ Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, says, ‘My slavehas praised Me.’ The slave says, ‘The All-Merciful, the Most Merciful.’ Allahsays, ‘My slave has spoken well of Me.’ The slave says, ‘Master of the Dayof the Deen.’ Allah says, ‘My slave has glorified Me.’ The slave says, ‘Youalone we worship and You alone we ask for help.’ Allah says, ‘This ayat isbetween Me and My slave, and for My slave is what he asks for.’ The slavesays, ‘Guide us in the straight Path, the Path of those whom You have blessed,not of those with whom You are angry, nor those who are in error.’ Allahsays, ‘These are for My slaves, and for My slave is what he asks for.'”

[Muslim]

42 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that his father usedto recite behind the imam when the imam did not recite aloud.

43 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id and from Rabi’a ibnAbi ‘Abd ar-Rahman that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad used to recite behind the imamwhen the imam did not recite aloud.

44 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Ruman that Nafi’ ibn Jubayribn Mut’im used to recite behind the imam when he did not recite aloud.

Malik said, “That is what I prefer of what I have heard about the matter.”

3.10 Not Reciting behind the Imam when He Recites Aloud

45 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, whenasked if anyone should recite behind an imam, said, “When you pray behindan imam then the recitation of the imam is enough for you, and when you prayon your own you must recite.”

Nafi’ added, “‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar used not to recite behind the imam.”

Yahya said that he heard Malik say, “The position with us is that a man recitesbehind the imam when the imam does not recite aloud and he refrains fromreciting when the imam recites aloud.”

46 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Ibn Ukayma al-Laythifrom Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, finished a prayer in which he had recited aloud and asked, “Didany of you recite with me just now?” One man said, “Yes, I did, Messengerof Allah.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, “I was saying to myself, ‘Why am I distracted from the Qur’an?'” Whenthe people heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, say that, they refrained from reciting with the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when he recited aloud.

[In an-Nasa’i]

3.11 Saying ‘Amin’ behind the Imam

47 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Sa’idibn al-Musayyab and Abu Salama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman told him from Abu Hurayrathat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,”When the imam says ‘Amin’, say ‘Amin’. If someone’s ‘Amin‘ coincideswith that of the angels, he will be forgiven his past wrong actions.”

[cf Bukhari 747]

Ibn Shihab said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, used to say ‘Aameen’ (extending it).”

48 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawlaof Abu Bakr, from Abu Salih as-Samman, from Abu Hurayra that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the imam hassaid, ‘not of those with anger on them nor of those who are in error,’say ‘Amin‘, for the past wrong actions of all those whose utterancecoincides with that of the angels are forgiven them.”

[cf Bukhari 749]

49 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad fromal-A’raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “When any of you say ‘Amin‘ and the angelsin the heavens also say ‘Amin’ so that the one coincides with the other,his past wrong actions are forgiven him.”

[cf Bukhari 748]

50 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawlaof Abu Bakr, from Abu Salih as-Samman from Abu Hurayra that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the Imam says,’Allah hears whoever praises Him,’ say, ‘O Allah, our Lord, praise belongsto You.’ Anyone whose words coincide with those of the angels will be forgivenhis past wrong actions.'”

[cf Bukhari 763]

3.12 Behaviour in the Sitting in the Prayer

51 Yahya related to me from Malik from Muslim ibn Abi Maryam that ‘Ali ibn’Abd ar-Rahman al-Mu’awi said, “‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar saw me playing with somesmall pebbles in the prayer. When I finished he forbade me, saying, ‘Do asthe Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did.’ Iasked, ‘What did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, do?’ He said, ‘When he sat in the prayer, he placed his right handon his right thigh and he closed his fist and pointed his index finger, andhe placed his left hand on his left thigh. That is what he used to do.'”

[In Muslim]

52 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abdullah ibn Dinar that he had seen’Abdullah ibn ‘Umar praying with a man beside him. When the man sat in thefourth rak’at, he put both feet to one side and crossed them. When ‘Abdullahfinished, he disapproved of that to him, and the man protested, “But youdo the same.” ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said, “I am ill.”

53 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sadaqa ibn Yasar that al-Mughira ibnHakim saw ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar sit back from the two sajdas of theprayer onto the top of his feet. When he had finished, al-Mughira mentionedit to him, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar explained, “It is not a sunna ofthe prayer. I do it because I am ill.”

54 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibnal-Qasim that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar told him that he used to see ‘Abdullahibn ‘Umar cross his legs in the sitting position of the prayer. He said,”So I did the same, and I was young at the time. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar forbademe to do it, saying, ‘The sunna of the prayer is that you keep your rightfoot vertical and lay your left foot down.’ I said to him, ‘But you weredoing that.’ He said, ‘My feet do not support me.'”

[cf Bukhari 793]

55 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that al-Qasim ibnMuhammad showed them how to sit in the tashahhud, and he kept hisright foot vertical and laid his left foot down, and sat on his left haunchnot on his foot. Then he said, “‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar saw medoing this and related to me that his father used to do the same thing.”

3.13 Tashahhud in the Prayer

56 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayrfrom ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Abd al-Qari that he heard ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab say,while he was teaching people the tashahhud from the minbar, “Say:’Greetings belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Good words andprayers belong to Allah. Peace on you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah andHis blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are right-acting.I testify that there is no god except Allah. And I testify that Muhammadis His slave and His Messenger.'”

“At-tahiyatu lillah, az-zakiyatu lillah, at-tayibatu wa’s-salawatu lillah.As-salamu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu’llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu’alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadi’llahi’s-salihin. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa ‘llah waash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasuluh.”

[Ash-shafi’i relates it in the Risala.]

57 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto say the tashahhud saying, “In the Name of Allah. Greetings belong to Allah.Prayers belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Peace be on the Prophetand the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the slavesof Allah who are right-acting. I testify that there is no god except Allah.I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

“Bismillah, at-tahiyatu lillah, as-salawatu lillah, az-zakiyatu lillah.As-salamu ‘ala’n-nabiyyi wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu ‘alaynawa ‘ala ‘ibadi’llahi’s-salihin. Shahidtu an la ilaha illallah. Shahidtu annaMuhammadan rasulu’llah.”

He used to say this after the first two rak’ats and he would make supplicationwith whatever seemed fit to him when the tashahhud was completed.When he sat at the end of the prayer, he did the tashahhud in a similarmanner, except that after the tashahhud he made supplication withwhatever seemed fit to him. When he had completed the tashahhud andintended to say the taslim, he said, “Peace be on the Prophet andHis mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah whoare right-acting.”

“As-salamu ‘ala’n-nabiyyi wa rahmatu’llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu ‘alaynawa ‘ala ‘ibadi’llahi’s-salihin.”

He then said, “Peace be upon you” to his right, and would return the greetingto the imam, and if anyone said “Peace be upon you” from his left he wouldreturn the greeting to him.

58 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasim from hisfather that ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, used to say in the tashahhud, “Greetings, good words, prayers,pure actions belong to Allah. I testify that there is no god except Allah,alone without partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.Peace be on you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peacebe on us and on the slaves of Allah who are right-acting. Peace be upon you.”

“At-tahiyatu, at-tayibatu, as-salawatu, az-zakiyatu lillah. Ash-hadu anla ilaha illa’llah, wahdahu la sharika lah, wa anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu warasuluhu. As-salamu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu’llahi wa barakatuhu.As-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadi’llahi’s-salihin. As-salamu ‘alaykum.”

59 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id al-Ansari that al-Qasimibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad told him that ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say in the tashahhud,”Greetings, good words, prayers, pure actions belong to Allah. I testifythat there is no god except Allah, alone without partner, and I testify thatMuhammad is the slave of Allah and His Messenger. Peace be upon you, Prophet,and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slavesof Allah who are right-acting. Peace be upon you.”

“At-tahiyatu, at-tayibatu, as-salawatu, az-zakiyatu lillah. Ash-hadu anla ilaha illa’llah, wahdahu la sharika lah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhuwa rasuluhu. As-salamu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu’llahi wa barakatuhu.As-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibadi-llahi’s-salihin. As-salamu ‘alaykum.”

60 Yahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab and Nafi’, themawla of Ibn ‘Umar, whether a man who joined an imam who had already donea rak’a should say the tashahhud with the imam in the second and fourthrak’as, even though these were odd for him? They said, “He should say thetashahhud with him.”

Malik said, “That is the position with us.”

3.14 What to do if one raises one’s head before the imam

61 Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn ‘Amribn ‘Alqama from Malik ibn ‘Abdullah as-Sa’di that Abu Hurayra said, “Theforelock of some one who raises his head and lowers it before the imam isin the hand of a shaytan.”

Malik said concerning some one who forgot and raised his head before theimam in ruku’ or sujud, “The sunna of that is to returnto bowing or prostrating and not to wait for the imam to come up. What hehas done is a mistake, because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, ‘The imam is appointed to be followed, so do notdiffer with him.’ Abu Hurayra said, ‘The forelock of some one who raiseshis head and lowers it before the imam is in the hand of a shaytan.'”

[cf Bukhari 689]

3.15 What to do if through forgetfulness one says the taslim aftertwo rak’as

62 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ayyub ibn Abi Tamimaas-Sakhtayani from Muhammad ibn Sirin from Abu Hurayra that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, finished the prayer aftertwo rak’as and Dhu’l-Yadayn asked him, “Has the prayer been shortened ordid you forget, Messenger of Allah?” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, said, “Has Dhu’l-Yadayn spoken the truth?” The peoplesaid, “Yes,” and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, stood and prayed another two rak’ats and then said, “Peace be uponyou.” Then he said, “Allah is greater” and went into a sajda as longas his usual prostration or longer. Then he came up from sajda and said,”Allah is greater” and went into a sajda as long as his usual prostrationor longer and then came up.

[cf Bukhari 1170]

63 Yahya related to me from Malik from Daud ibn al-Husayn that Abu Sufyan,the mawla of Ibn Abi Ahmad, said that he heard Abu Hurayra say, “The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed ‘Asr and said thetaslim after two rak’ats. Dhu’l-Yadayn stood up and said, ‘Has theprayer been shortened, Messenger of Allah, or did you forget?’ The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and completedwhat remained of the prayer, and then, remaining sitting after saying thetaslim, he made two prostrations.”

[In Muslim]

64 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Abu Bakr ibn Sulaymanibn Abi Hathma said, “I have heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, prayed two rak’as of one of the two day-timeprayers, Dhuhr or ‘Asr, and said the taslim after two rak’as.Dhu’sh-Shamalayn asked him, ‘Has the prayer been shortened, Messenger ofAllah, or did you forget?’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, said, ‘The prayer has not been shortened and I did not forget.’Dhu’sh-Shamalayn said, ‘It was certainly one of those, Messenger of Allah.’The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, approachedthe people and said, ‘Has Dhu’sh-Shamalayn spoken the truth?’ They replied,’Yes, Messenger of Allah,’ and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, completed what remained of the prayer, and then said,’Peace be upon you.'”

65 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab,and from Abu Salama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman, the same as that.

Malik said, “For every forgetfulness which decreases from the prayer,prostrations for it are done before the greeting, and for every forgetfulnesswhich is an addition to the prayer, prostrations are done for it come afterthe greeting.”

3.16 Completing what is recalled when uncertain how much has been prayed

66 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from ‘Ata’ ibn Yasarthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,”If you are uncertain in the prayer and do not know whether you have prayedthree or four rak’ats, then pray a rak’at and make two prostrations fromthe sitting position before the taslim. If the rak’at that you prayedwas the fifth, then you make it even by these two sajdas, and if itwas the fourth, then the two prostrations spite Shaytan.”

[Muslim has this from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri]

67 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayd from Salimibn ‘Abdullah that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar used to say, “If you are uncertainin the prayer, estimate what you think you have forgotten of the prayer andrepeat it, then do the two sajdas of forgetfulness from the sittingposition.”

68 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Afif ibn ‘Amr as-Sahmi that ‘Ata’ibn Yasar said, “I asked ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and Ka’b al-Ahbarabout someone who was uncertain in his prayer and did not know whether hehad prayed three or four rak’ats. Both of them said, ‘He should pray anotherrak’a and then do two sajdas from the sitting position.'”

69 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, whenquestioned about forgetfulness in the prayer, said, “If you think that youhave forgotten part of the prayer, then pray it.”

3.17 What to do if one stands after the completion of the prayer or aftertwo rak’as

70 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from al-A’rajthat ‘Abdullah ibn Buhayna said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, prayed two rak’as with us then got up without sittingback and the people stood with him. When he had finished the prayer and wehad seen him say the taslim, he said ‘Allah is greater’ and did twosajdas from the sitting position and then said the taslim again.”

[cf Bukhari 1166]

71 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from’Abd ar-Rahman ibn Hurmuz that ‘Abdullah ibn Buhayna said, “The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed Dhuhr withus and he stood straight up after two rak’ats without sitting. When he hadfinished the prayer, he did two sajdas and then said the taslimafter that.”

[cf Bukhari 1167]

Malik said, concerning someone who forgot in his prayer and stood up afterhe had completed four rak’ats and recited and then went into ruku’ andthen, when he raised his head from ruku’, remembered that he had alreadycompleted (his prayer), “He returns to a sitting position and does not doany sajda. If he has already done one sajda I do not thinkhe should do another. Then when his prayer is finished he does twosajdas from the sitting position after saying the taslim.”

3.18 Distraction in the Prayer

72 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Alqama ibn Abi ‘Alqamafrom his mother that ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “Abu Jahm ibn Hudhayfa gave the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a fine striped garment from Syriaand he did the prayer in it. When he had finished he said, ‘Give this garmentback to Abu Jahm. I looked at the stripes in the prayer and they almostdistracted me.'”

[cf Bukhari 366]

73 Malik related to me from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wore a fine striped garmentfrom Syria, and then gave it to Abu Jahm and took a plain, rough, garmentin return. Abu Jahm asked, “Messenger of Allah! Why?” He said, “I lookedat the stripes in the prayer.”

[mursal]

74 Malik related to me from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr that Abu Talha al-Ansariwas praying in his garden when a wild pigeon flew in and began to fly toand fro trying to find a way out. The sight was pleasing to him and he lethis eyes follow the bird for a time and then he went back to his prayer butcould not remember how much he had prayed. He said, “A trial has befallenme in this property of mine.” So he came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, and mentioned the trial that had happenedto him in his garden and said, “Messenger of Allah, it is a sadaqafor Allah, so dispose of it wherever you wish.”

75 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr that a manfrom the Ansar was praying in a garden of his in Quff, one of the valleysof Madina, during the date season and the branches of the palms were saggingwith fruit on all sides. He stared at their fruitfulness in amazement. Thenhe went back to his prayer and he did not know how much he had prayed. Hesaid, “A trial has befallen me in this property of mine.” So he went to ‘Uthmanibn ‘Affan, who was the khalifa at the time, and mentioned it to him andsaid, “It is sadaqa, so give it away in the paths of good.” ‘Uthmanibn ‘Affan sold it for fifty thousand and so that property became known asthe Fifty.

4 Forgetfulness in the Prayer

4.1 What to do if one forgets in prayer

1 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from AbuSalama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Awf from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you standsin prayer, Shaytan comes to him and confuses him until he does not know howmuch he has prayed. When one of you experiences that, he should do twosajdas from the sitting position.”

[cf Bukhari 1175]

2 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I forget or I am madeto forget in order that I may establish the sunna.”

3 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man questionedal-Qasim ibn Muhammad saying, “My imagination gets carried away in the prayer,and it happens to me a lot.” Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said, “Go on with yourprayer, for it will not leave you alone until you go away saying, ‘I havenot completed my prayer.'”

5. Jumu’a

5.1 Ghusl on the Day of Jumu’a

1 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawlaof Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman, from Abu Salih as-Sammani from Abu Hurayrathat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,”If someone does ghusl for major ritual impurity (janaba) on the dayof Jumu’a and then goes in the first part of the time, it is as if he hasoffered up a camel. If he goes in the second part of the time, it is as ifhe has offered up a cow. If he goes in third part of the time, it is as ifhe has offered up a horned ram. If he goes in the fourth part of the time,it is as if he has offered up a hen. If he goes in the fifth part of thetime, it is as if he has offered up an egg. And when the imam comes out,the angels settle down listening to the dhikr (remembrance of Allah).”

[cf Bukhari 841]

2 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sa’id ibn Abi Sa’id al-Maqburi thatAbu Hurayra used to say, “Doing ghusl as prescribed for major ritual impurity(janaba) is incumbent (wajib) on the day of Jumu’a on everymale who has reached puberty.”

3 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Salim ibn ‘Abdullahsaid, “One of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, came into the mosque on the day of Jumu’a while ‘Umaribn al-Khattab was already giving the khutba. ‘Umar asked, ‘What (kind of)time is this (to arrive)?’ He replied, ‘Amir al-Muminin, I returned fromthe market and heard the call to prayer, so I did no more than do wudu’.”Umar said, ‘You only did wudu’ as well? You know that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to instruct people to doghusl.'”

[cf Bukhari 838]

4 Yahya related to me from Malik from Safwan ibn Sulaym from ‘Ata’ ibn Yasarfrom Abu Sa’id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “Ghusl on the day of Jumu’a is incumbenton every male who has reached puberty.”

[cf Bukhari 820]

5 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ from Ibn ‘Umar that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When you go toJumu’a, do ghusl.”

[cf Bukhari 837]

Malik said, “It is not enough for someone to do a ghusl on the day of Jumu’aand intend by it the ghusl for Jumu’a unless he does ghusl and then setsoff. That is because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, said in the hadith related by Ibn ‘Umar, ‘When you go to Jumu’a,perform ghusl.'”

Malik said, “If someone does ghusl on the day of Jumu’a and intends by itthe ghusl of the day of Jumu’a and then sets out, whether early orlate, and does something which breaks his wudu’, he only has to dowudu’ and his ghusl remains valid for him.”

5.2 Paying attention when the imam is giving the Khutba on the day ofJumu’a

6 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad from al-A’rajfrom Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, said, “Even saying to your companion ‘Listen’ while the imam isgiving the khutba on the day of Jumu’a, constitutes foolish chatter.”

[cf Bukhri 892]

7 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Tha’laba ibn Abi Malikal-Quradhi informed him that in the time of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab they usedto pray on the day of Jumu’a until ‘Umar came out, and when ‘Umar came outand sat on the mimbar and the mu’adhdhins called the adhan, they would sitand talk, and then when the mu’adhdhins were silent and ‘Umar stood to givethe khutba, they would pay attention and no one would speak.

Ibn Shihab said, “The imam coming out stops prayer and his speaking stopsconversation.”

8 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’n-Nadr, the mawla of ‘Umar ibn’Ubaydullah, from Malik ibn Abi ‘Amir that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan used to sayin khutbas, and he would seldom omit it if he was giving the khutba, “Whenthe imam stands delivering the khutba on the day of Jumu’a, listen and payattention, for there is the same portion for someone who pays attention butcannot hear as for someone who pays attention and hears. And when the iqamaof the prayer is called, straighten your rows and make your shoulders adjacentto each other, because the straightening of the rows is part of the completionof the prayer.” Then he would not say the takbir until some men who had beenentrusted with straightening the rows came and told him that they were straight.Then he would say the takbir.

9 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar sawtwo men talking while the imam was giving the khutba on the day ofJumu’a and he threw pebbles at them to alert them to be quiet.

10 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man sneezed onthe day of Jumu’a while the imam was giving the khutba, and a manby his side asked Allah to bless him. Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab was asked aboutthat and disapproved of what the man had done and said, “Do not do it again.”

11 Yahya related to me from Malik that when he asked Ibn Shihab about talkingin the Jumu’a after the imam had come down from the minbar but before hehad said the takbir. Ibn Shihab said, “There is no harm in that.”

5.3 Catching a Rak’a of the Jumu’a Prayer

12 Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab used to say, “Someone whocatches a rak’at of the Jumu’a prayer should pray another rak’a with it.”Ibn Shihab said, “That is the sunna.”

Malik said, “I saw the people of knowledge in our city doing that. That isbecause the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, ‘Whoever catches a rak’a of the prayer has caught the prayer.'”

Malik said, concerning someone who was in a crowd on the day of Jumu’a anddid the ruku’ but was not able to go into sajda until the imamhad risen or finished his prayer, “If he is able to do the sajda andhas already done the ruku’ then he should do the sajda whenthe people stand up. If he is unable to do the sajda until after theimam has finished the prayer, then I prefer that he begins the prayer againand does the four rak’as of Dhuhr.”

5.4 Nose Bleeds on the Day of Jumu’a

13 Malik said, “Someone who has a nose bleed on the day of Jumu’a while theimam is giving the khutba and he leaves and does not come back untilthe imam has finished the prayer, should pray four rak’ats.”

Malik said that if someone prayed a rak’a with the imam on the day of Jumu’aand then his nose started to bleed so he left and came back and the imamhad prayed both rak’ats, then he should complete the prayer with anotherrak’a as long as he had not spoken.

Malik said, “Someone who has a nose bleed, or something else happens to himthat forces him to leave, does not have to ask permission of the imam ifhe wants to leave on the day of Jumu’a.”

5.5 Making Haste on the Day of Jumu’a

14 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had asked Ibn Shihab about theword of Allah, the Majestic, the Mighty, “O you who believe! When theprayer is called on the Day of Jumu’a, hasten to the remembrance of Allah.”(62:9). Ibn Shihab said, “‘Umar ibn al-Khattab used to recite, ‘Whenthe call is made for the prayer on the day of Jumu’a, go to the remembranceof Allah.'”

Malik said, “Making haste in the Book of Allah is only deed and action. Allahthe Blessed, the Exalted, says ‘When he leaves you, he goes about theearth ‘ (2:205), and He, the Exalted, said, ‘But as for him who comesto you eagerly showing fearfulness’ (80:8), and He said, ‘Then hastilybacked away’ (79:22), and He said, ‘Your striving is to widely differentends’” (92:4). Malik said, “Thus the making haste which Allah mentionsin His Book is not running on the feet or exertion. It only means deed andactions.”

5.6 The Imam’s Stopping off in a Town on the Day of Jumu’a

15 Malik said, “If the imam stops off on a journey in a settlement whereJumu’a is obligatory and he gives a khutba and leads them in the Jumu’aprayer, then the people of the town and any other people present do the Jumu’aprayer with him.”

Malik said, “If the imam gathers people for prayer while he is travellingin a settlement where the Jumu’a prayer is not obligatory, then there isno Jumu’a for him, nor for the people of the town, nor for anyone else whojoins them for the prayer in congregation, and the people of the settlementand anyone else who is not travelling should perform the full prayer.”

Malik added, “Jumu’a is not obligatory for a traveller.”

5.7 The Special Time in the Day of Jumu’a

16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad fromal-A’raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, mentioned the day of Jumu’a and said, “There is a timein it when Allah gives to a Muslim standing in prayer whatever he asks for,”and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, indicatedwith his hand how small it was.

[cf Bukhari 893]

17 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al-Had fromMuhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Harith at-Taymi from Abu Salama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahmanibn ‘Awf that Abu Hurayra said, “I went out to at-Tur (Mount Sinai) and metKa’b al-Ahbar and sat with him. He related to me things from the Torah andI related to him things from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace. Among the things I related to him was that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The best of dayson which the sun rises is the day of Jumu’a. On it Adam was created, andon it he fell from the Garden. On it he was forgiven, and on it he died.On it the Hour occurs, and every moving thing listens from morning till sunsetin apprehension of the Hour except jinn and men. During it there is a timewhen Allah gives to a Muslim slave standing in prayer whatever he asks for.’Ka’b said, ‘That is one day in every year.’ I said, ‘No, every Jumu’a.’ ThenKa’b recited the Torah and said, ‘The Messenger of Allah has spoken the truth.'”

Abu Hurayra continued, “I met Basra ibn Abi Basra al-Ghifari and he said,’Where have you come from?’ I said, ‘From at-Tur.’ He said, ‘If I had seenyou before you left, you would not have gone. I heard the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Only make a special journeyto three mosques: the mosque of the Haram (Makka), this mosque (Madina),and the mosque of Ilya’ or the Bait al-Maqdis (two names of Jerusalem).”‘”(He was not sure which expression was used.)

Abu Hurayra continued, “Then I met ‘Abdullah ibn Salam and I told him thatI had sat with Ka’b al-Ahbar, and I mentioned what I had related to him aboutthe day of Jumu’a, and told him that Ka’b had said, ‘That is one dayin every year.’ ‘Abdullah ibn Salam said, ‘Ka’b lied,’ and I added, ‘Ka’bthen recited the Torah and said, “No, it is every Jumu’a.” ‘ ‘Abdullahibn Salam said, ‘Ka’b spoke the truth.’ Then ‘Abdullah ibn Salam said, ‘Iknow what time that is.’ “

Abu Hurayra continued, “I said to him, ‘Let me know it – don’t keep it fromme.’ ‘Abdullah ibn Salam said, ‘It is the last period of time in the dayof Jumu’a.’ “

Abu Hurayra continued, “I said, ‘How can it be the last period of time inthe day of Jumu’a, when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “a Muslim standing in prayer”, and that is a timewhen there is no prayer?’ ‘Abdullah ibn Salam replied, ‘Did not the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Whoever sits waitingfor the prayer is in prayer until he prays?'”

Abu Hurayra added, “I said, ‘Of course.’ He said, ‘Then it is that.'”

[The hadith is also in Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and an-Nasa’i]

5.8 Good Appearance and Not Stepping over People and Facing the Imam onthe Day of Jumu’a

18 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that he had heardthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,”There is nothing wrong in wearing two garments which are not work-clothesfor Jumu’a.”

[In Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah]

19 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar wouldnever go to Jumu’a without wearing oil and perfume except when itwas forbidden (i.e. when he was in ihram).

20 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakribn Hazm from whoever related it to him that Abu Hurayra used to say, “Itis better for a man to pray on the surface of al-Harra (a rocky area in Madina)than for him to wait until the imam stands to give the khutba andthen come and step over people’s necks.”

Malik said, “The sunna with us is that the people face the imam on the dayof Jumu’a when he intends to give the khutba, whether theyare near the qibla or elsewhere.”

5.9 The Recitation in the Jumu’a Prayer, the Sitting, and Missingthe Prayer without a Reason

21 Yahya related to me from Malik from Damra ibn Sa’id al-Mazini from ‘Ubaydullahibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Utba ibn Mas’ud that ad-Dahhak ibn Qays asked an-Nu’manibn Bashir, “What did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, used to recite on the day of Jumu’a after Suratal-Jumu’a (sura 62)?” He said, “He used to recite Suratal-Ghashiya (sura 88).”

[In Muslim]

22 Yahya related to me from Malik that Safwan ibn Sulaym said, “If anyonemisses Jumu’a three times without reason or illness, Allah will seta seal on his heart.” (Malik said, “I do not know if it was from the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or not.”

[In Abu Dawud, an-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah]

23 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ja’far ibn Muhammad from his fatherthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gavetwo khutbas on the day of Jumu’a and sat down between them.

6 Prayer in Ramadan

6.1 Stimulation of the Desire for Prayer in Ramadan

1 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayrfrom ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,prayed in the mosque one night and people prayed behind him. Then he prayedthe next night and there were more people. Then they gathered on the thirdor fourth night and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, did not come out to them. In the morning, he said, “I saw whatyou were doing and the only thing that prevented me from coming out to youwas that I feared that it would become obligatory (fard) for you.”This happened in Ramadan.

[In Muslim]

2 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abu Salama ibn ‘Abdar-Rahman ibn ‘Awf from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, used to exhort people to spend the night inprayer in Ramadan but never ordered it definitely. He used to say, “Whoeverstands in prayer in the night during Ramadan with belief and expecting thereward will be forgiven all his previous wrong actions.”

Ibn Shihab said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, died while that was still the custom, and it continued to be the customin the khalifate of Abu Bakr and at the beginning of the khalifate of ‘Umaribn al-Khattab.”

[cf Bukhari 1905]

6.2 Praying at Night during Ramadan

3 Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab from ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayrthat ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Abd al-Qari said, “I went out with ‘Umar ibn al-Khattabin Ramadan to the mosque and the people there were spread out in groups.Some men were praying by themselves, whilst others were praying in smallgroups. ‘Umar said, ‘By Allah, I think that it would be better for all thesepeople to join together behind one reciter.’ So he gathered them behind Ubayyibn Ka’b. Then I went out with him another night and the people were prayingbehind their Qur’an reciter. ‘Umar said, ‘This is an excellent innovation!But the one they sleep through is better than the one they are praying,’meaning the last part of the night, and people used to pray at the beginningof the night.”

[cf Bukhari 1906]

4 Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn Yusuf that as-Sa’ib ibnYazid said, “‘Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered Ubayy ibn Ka’b and Tamim ad-Darito lead the people in praying eleven rak’ats. The reciter of the Qur’anwould recite the Mi’in (a group of medium-sized suras) untilwe would be leaning on our staffs from having stood so long in prayer. Andwe would not leave until the approach of dawn.”

5 Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Ruman said, “The people usedto pray twenty-three rak’as at night during Ramadan in the time of ‘Umaribn al-Khattab.”

6 Yahya related to me from Malik from Da’ud ibn al-Husayn that he heard al-A’rajsay, “I never saw the people in Ramadan but that they were cursing thedisbelievers.” He added, “The reciter of Qur’an used to recite Suratal-Baqara in eight rak’ats and if he did it in twelve rak’as thepeople would think that he had made it easy.”

7 Yahya related to me from Malik that ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr said, “I heardmy father say, ‘We finished praying in Ramadan and the servants hurried withthe food, fearing the approach of dawn.’ “

8 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father thatDhakwan Abu ‘Amr (a slave belonging to ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was freed by her after her death)used to stand in prayer and recite for her in Ramadan.


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