1 The Times of Prayer

1.1 The Times of Prayer

1 He said, “Yahya ibn Yahya al-Laythi related to me fromMalik ibn Anas from Ibn Shihab that one day ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz delayedthe prayer. ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayr went to him and told him that al-Mughiraibn Shu’ba had delayed the prayer one day while he was inKufa and Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari had gone to him and said, ‘What’s this,Mughira? Do you not know that the angel Jibril came down and prayed and theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Thenhe prayed again, and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, prayed. Then he prayed again, and the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Then he prayed again, and theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed. Thenhe said, “This is what I was ordered to do.” ‘

‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz said, “Be sure of what you relate, ‘Urwa. Was itdefinitely Jibril who established the time of the prayer for the Messengerof Allah?”

‘Urwa replied, “That’s how it was related to Bashir ibn Abi Mas’ud al-Ansariby his father.”

[see 499- al-Bukhari]

2 ‘Urwa said that ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, used to pray ‘Asr while the sunlight was pouring into herroom, before the sun itself had become visible (i.e. because it was stillhigh in the sky).

[see 499- al-Bukhari]

3 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that ‘Ata’ ibn Yasarsaid, “A man came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, and asked him about the time of the Subh prayer. The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not answer him, butin the morning he prayed Subh at first light. The following morning he prayedSubh when it was much lighter, and then said, ‘Where is the man who was askingabout the time of the prayer?’ The man replied, ‘Here I am, Messenger ofAllah.’ He said, ‘The time is between these two.'”

4 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from‘Amra bint ‘Abd ar-Rahman that ‘A’isha, the wifeof the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to praySubh and the women would leave wrapped in theirgarments while they could not yet be recognised in the darkness.”

[cf. Bukhari 553]

5 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from’Ata’ ibn Yasar and from Busr ibn Sa’id and from al-A’raj – all of whom relatedit from Abu Hurayra – that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, said, “Whoever manages to perform a rak’at ofSubh before the sun has risen has done Subh in time, and whoevermanages to perform a rak’at of ‘Asr before the sun has sethas done ‘Asr in time.”

[cf. Bukhari 554]

6 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’, the mawla of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar,that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to his governors, saying. “The most importantof your affairs in my view is the prayer. Whoever protects it and observesit carefully is protecting his deen, while whoever is negligent aboutit will be even more negligent about other things.”

Then he added, “Pray Dhuhr any time from when the afternoon shadeis the length of your forearm until the length of your shadow matches yourheight. Pray ‘Asr when the sun is still pure white, so that a ridercan travel two or three farsakhs before the sun sets. Pray Maghribwhen the sun has set. Pray ‘Isha ‘any time from when the redness inthe western sky has disappeared up until a third of the night has passed- and a person who sleeps, may he have no rest, a person who sleeps, mayhe have no rest, a person who sleeps, may he have no rest. And praySubh when all the stars are visible and like a haze in the sky.”

7 Yahya related to me from Malik from his uncle Abu Suhayl from his fatherthat ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to Abu Musa saying that he should prayDhuhr when the sun had started to decline, ‘Asr when the sunwas still pure white before it was tinged with any yellowness, Maghribwhen the sun had set, and to delay ‘Isha’ as long as he did not sleep,and to pray Subh when the stars were all visible and like a haze inthe sky, reciting in it two long suras from the Mufassal.

8 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father that’Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to Abu Musa al-Ash’ari that he should pray‘Asr when the sun was still pure white so that a man could ride threefarsakhs (before Maghrib) and that he should pray ‘Isha’ duringthe first third of the night, or, if he delayed it, then up until the middleof the night, and he warned him not to be forgetful.

9 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Ziyad that ‘Abdullah ibnRafi’, the mawla of Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, asked Abu Hurayra about the time of the prayer.Abu Hurayra said, “Let me tell you. Pray Dhuhr when the length ofyour shadow matches your height, ‘Asr when your shadow is twice yourheight, Maghrib when the sun has set, ‘Isha’ in the first thirdof the night, and Subh in the very first light of dawn,” i.e. whenthe dawn has definitely come.

10 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn ‘Abdullahibn Abi Talha that Anas ibn Malik said, “We used to pray the ‘Asr prayerand then if one of us went out to the Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf, we would find thempraying ‘Asr.

[cf Bukhari 523]

11 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Anasibn Malik said, “We used to pray ‘Asr and then it was still possiblefor one of us to go to Quba’ and reach there while the sun was still high.”

[cf. Bukhari 526]

12 Yahya related to me from Malik from Rabi’a ibn Abi ‘Abd ar-Rahman thatal-Qasim ibn Muhammad said, “None of the Companions that I met prayedDhuhr until well after noon,” (i.e. until when the sun had lost itfierceness).

 

1.2 The Time of the Jumu’a Prayer

 

13 Yahya related to me from Malik from his uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik thathis father said, “I used to see a carpet belonging to ‘Aqil ibn Abi Talibspread out on the day of Jumu’a up to the west wall of the mosque. When theshadow of the wall covered the whole carpet, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab would comeout and pray the Jumu’a prayer.”

Malik, Abu Suhayl’s father, added, “We would then return after the Jumu’aprayer and take our midday sleep”.

14 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Amr ibn Yahya ibn Yahya al-Mazinifrom Ibn Abi Salit that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan prayed Jumu’a in Madina and ‘Asrin Malal (a place seventeen miles from Madina). Malik commented, “That wasby praying Jumu’a just past midday and then travelling fast.”

 

1.3 Catching a Rak’at of the Prayer

 

15 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from AbuSalama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “Whoever catches a rak’at of the prayer has caughtthe prayer.”

(cf. Bukhari 555)

16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibnal-Khattab used to say, “If you have missed ruku’, you have missed sajda.”.

17 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umarand Zayd ibn Thabit used to say, “Whoever catches the ruku’ has caught thesajda.”

18 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abu Hurayra usedto say, “Whoever catches the ruku’ has caught the sajda and whoever missesthe recitation of the Umm al-Qur’an has missed much good.”

 

1.4 Duluk ash-Shams and Ghasaq al-Layl

 

19 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto say, “Duluk ash-Shams begins from when the sun passes the meridian.”

20 Yahya related to me from Malik that Da’ud ibn al-Husayn said that someonehad told him that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas used to say, “Duluk ash-Shamsbegins from when the sun passes the meridian. Ghasaq al-Layl isthe gathering of the night and its darkness.”

 

1.5 The Times of Prayer in General

 

21 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ from ‘Abdullahibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, “If someone misses the ‘Asr prayer, it is as if he hasbeen deprived of his family and all his wealth.””

[cf. Bukhari 527]

22 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that once ‘Umar ibnal-Khattab left after doing the ‘Asr prayer and met a man who had not beenthere. ‘Umar asked him what had kept him from the prayer and even thoughthe man gave a good reason, ‘Umar said, “You have given yourself short measure.”

Yahya added that Malik commented, “It is said that everything has a shortmeasure and a full measure.”

23 Yahya related to me from Malik that Yahya ibn Sa’id used to say, “Evenif someone manages to pray before the time of the prayer has passed, thetime that has passed him by is more important, or better, than his familyand wealth.”

Yahya said that Malik said, “If the time for a prayer comes and a travellerdelays the prayer through neglect or forgetfulness until he reaches his family,he should do that prayer in full if he arrives within the time. But if hearrives when the time has passed, he should do the travelling prayer – thatway he only repays what he owes.”

Malik said, “This is what I have found the people and men of knowledge doingin our community.”

Malik explained that shafaq is the redness in the sky after the sunhas set, and said, “When the shafaq has gone then the ‘Isha’ prayeris due and you have left the time of Maghrib.”

24 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that one time ‘Abdullah ibn’Umar fainted and lost consciousness and he did not make up the prayer.

Malik commented, “We consider that that was because, and Allah knows best,the time had passed. Someone who recovers within the time has to pray.”

 

1.6 Sleeping through the Prayer

 

25 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Sa’id ibn al-Musayyabthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, travelledby night on the way back from Khaybar. Towards the end of the night he stoppedfor a rest and told Bilal to stay awake to keep watch for the Subh prayer.The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and hiscompanions slept. Bilal stayed on guard as long as was decreed for him andthen he leant against his riding camel facing the direction of the dawn andsleep overcame him and neither he nor the Messenger of Allah nor any of theparty woke up until the sun’s rays struck them. The Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, was alarmed. Bilal excused himself,saying, “Messenger of Allah! The One who took your self was the One who tookmy self.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace,ordered the party to move on and so they roused their mounts and rode ona short distance. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, ordered Bilal to give the iqama and then led them in the Subh prayer.When he had finished he said, “A person who forgets a prayer should prayit when he remembers. Allah the Blessed and Exalted says in His book, ‘Establishthe prayer to remember Me.’ ”

[Mursal hadith, which Muslim has from Abu Hurayra]

26 Yahya related to me from Malik that Zayd ibn Aslam said, “The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stopped for a rest onenight on the way to Makka and appointed Bilal to wake them up for the prayer.Bilal slept and everyone else slept and none of them woke up until the sunhad risen. When they did wake up they were all alarmed. The Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered them to ride outof the valley, saying that there was a shaytan in it. So they rode out ofthe valley and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, ordered them to dismount and do wudu and he told Bilal either to callthe prayer or to give the iqama. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, then led them in prayer. Noticing their uneasiness,he went to them and said, ‘O people! Allah seized our spirits (arwah)and if He had wished He would have returned them to us at a time other thanthis. So if you sleep through the time for a prayer or forget it and thenare anxious about it, pray it as if you were praying it in its time.’ TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, turned to AbuBakr and said, ‘Shaytan came to Bilal when he was standing in prayer andmade him lie down and lulled him to sleep like a small boy.’ The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then called Bilal andtold him the same as he had told Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr declared. ‘I bear witnessthat you are the Messenger of Allah.'”

[Mursal hadith]

 

1.7 Not Doing the Prayer at the Hottest Hour of the Day

 

27 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from ‘Ata’ ibn Yasarthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,”Scorching heat is from the blast of Jahannam. So, when the heat is fierce,delay the prayer until it gets cooler.”

He added in explanation, “The fire complained to its Lord and said, ‘My Lord,part of me has eaten another part,’ so He allowed it two breaths in everyyear, a breath in winter and a breath in summer.”

[mursal hadith]

28 Malik related to us from ‘Abdullah ibn Yazid, the mawlaof al-Aswad ibn Sufyan, from Abu Salama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman from Muhammadibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Thawban from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When the heat is fierce,delay the prayer until it gets cooler, for scorching heat is from the blastof Jahannam.”

He added, “The Fire complained to its Lord, so He allowed it two breathsin each year, a breath in the winter and a breath in summer.”

[cf. Bukhari 512]

29 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad fromal-A’raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “When the heat is fierce, wait until it gets coolerbefore you do the prayer, for scorching heat is from the blast of Jahannam.”

[cf. Bukhari 510]

 

1.8 Not Entering the Mosque Smelling of Garlic and Not Covering the Mouthin Prayer

 

30 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Sa’id ibn al-Musayyabthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,”Anyone who eats this plant should not come near our mosques. The smell ofthe garlic will offend us.”

31 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Mujabbar thathe used to see Salim ibn ‘Abdullah pull the cloth away fiercely from themouth of any man he saw covering his mouth while praying.

[mursal hadith. It is related by Muslim from Abu Huraya]

 

 

2 Purity

 

2.1 How to do Wudu

 

1 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Amr ibn Yahya al-Mazinithat his father once asked ‘Abdullah ibn Zayd ibn ‘Asim, who was the grandfatherof ‘Amr ibn Yahya al-Mazini and one of the companions of the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “Can you show me how theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,used to do wudu’?”‘Abdullah ibn Zayd ibn ‘Asim said, “Yes,” and asked for water to do wudu’.He poured some out on to his hand and washed themtwice and then rinsed his mouth and snuffed water up his nose and blew itout three times. Then he washed his face three times and both of his armsup to the elbows twice. He then wiped his head with both hands, taking hishands from his forehead to the nape of his neck and then bringing them backto where he had begun. Then he washed his feet.

[cf Bukhari 183]

2 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad from al-A’rajfrom Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, said, “When you do wudu, snuff water into your nose and blow itout, and if you use stones to clean your private parts use an odd number.”

[cf Bukhari 160]

3 Yahya related to me from Ibn Shihab from Abu Idris al-Khawlanifrom Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, said, “The person doing wudu should snuff water up his nose andblow it out again.”

[cf Bukhari 159]

4 Yahya said that he heard Malik say that there was no harm in washing themouth and cleaning the nose with only one handful of water.

5 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibnAbi Bakr was visiting ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, on the day that Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas died, and he askedfor some water to do wudu. ‘A’isha said to him, “‘Abd ar-Rahman! Performyour wudu fully, for I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, say, ‘Woe to the heels in the fire.’ ”

[In Muslim]

6 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn Talha from ‘Uthmanibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman that his father related to him that he had heard that’Umar ibn al-Khattab used to wash what was beneath his waist-wrapper withwater.

7 Yahya said that Malik was asked what a man should do if, when he did wudu,he forgot and washed his face before he had rinsed his mouth, or washed hisforearms before he had washed his face. He said, “If someone washes his facebefore rinsing his mouth, he should rinse his mouth and not wash his faceagain. If someone washes his forearms before his face, however, he shouldwash his forearms again so that he has washed them after his face. This isif he is still near the place (of wudu).”

8 Yahya said that Malik was asked about what a man should do if he does notremember that he has not rinsed his mouth and nose until after he has prayed.He said, “He does not have to repeat the prayer, but should rinse his mouthand nose if he wishes to do any more prayers after that.”

 

2.2 Wudu for Prayer after Sleep

 

9 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad from al-A’raj from AbuHurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, “When you wake up from sleep, you should wash your hands before puttingthem in the wudu water, for none of you knows where his hands were duringthe night.”

[cf. Bukhari 160]

10 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattabsaid, “If you fall asleep lying down you must do wudu’ (before you pray).”

Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that the ayat“Youwho believe! When you rise for prayer wash your faces, and your arms to theelbows, and wipe over your heads and your feet up to the ankles,” refersto rising from bed, meaning sleep.

11 Yahya said that Malik said, “The situation with us is that you do nothave to perfom wudu ‘on account of a nose-bleed, or for blood, or on accountof pus issuing from the body. You only have to perform wudu’ on account ofimpurities which issue from the genitals or the anus, or for sleep.”

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that Ibn ‘Umar used to sleepwhile sitting and then would pray without doing wudu’.

 

2.3 What is Pure for Wudu’

 

12 Yahya related to me from Malik from Safwan ibn Sulaym from Sa’id ibn Salamaof the Banu Azraq from al-Mughira ibn Abi Burda of the tribe of Banu ‘Abdad-Dar that he heard Abu Hurayra speak about a man who came to the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Messenger ofAllah! We travel by sea and we do not carry much fresh water with us so ifwe do wudu with it we go thirsty. Can we do wudu with sea-water?” The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied, “Its water ispure, and its dead creatures are halal.”

[In Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah]

13 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Talhafrom Humayda bint Abi ‘Ubayda ibn Farwa that her maternal aunt, Kabsha bintKa’b ibn Malik, who was the wife of the son of Abu Qatada al-Ansari, toldher that once Abu Qatada was visiting her and she poured out some water forhim to do wudu with. Just then a cat came to drink from it, so he tiltedthe vessel toward it to let it drink. Kabsha continued, “He saw me lookingat him and said, ‘Are you surprised, daughter of my brother?’ I said, ‘Yes.’He replied that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, ‘Cats are not impure. They intermingle with you.’ ”

[In Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah]

Yahya said that Malik said, “There is no harm in that unless one sees impuritieson the cat’s mouth.”

14 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from Muhammad ibnIbrahim ibn al-Harith at-Taymi from Yahya ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Hatib that’Umar ibn al-Khattab set out on one occasion with a party of riders, oneof whom was ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. They came to a watering place and ‘Amr ibn al-‘Asasked the man who owned it whether wild beasts drank from it. ‘Umar ibnal-Khattab told the owner of the watering place not to answer, since thepeople drank after the wild beasts and the wild beasts drank after them.

15 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullahibn ‘Umar used to say that men and their wives used to do wudu together inthe time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

[cf. Bukhari 190]

 

2.4 Things which do not break Wudu

 

16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn ‘Umara from Muhammadibn Ibrahim that the mother of the son of Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn’Awf questioned Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, and said, “I am a woman who wears a long skirt and(sometimes) I walk in dirty places.” Umm Salama replied, “The Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘What follows (i.e.clean places) purifies it.

[Abu Dawuf, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah]

17 Yahya related to me from Malik that he saw Rabi’a ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman vomitseveral times when he was in the mosque and he did not leave, nor did hedo wudu before he prayed.

Yahya said that Malik was asked whether a man who vomited food had to dowudu and he said, “He does not have to do wudu, but he should rinse the insideof his mouth and wash his mouth out.”

18 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar preparedthe body of one of Sa’id ibn Zayd’s sons for burial and carried it and thenentered the mosque and prayed without doing wudu.

Yahya said that Malik was asked whether it was necessary to do wudu becauseof regurgitating undigested food and he said, “No, wudu is not necessary,but the mouth should be rinsed.”

 

2.5 No Wudu on Account of Eating Cooked Food

 

19 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from’Ata’ ibn Yasar from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, ate a shoulder of lamb and then prayedwithout doing wudu.

[cf. Bukhari 204]

20 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’idfrom Bushayr ibn Yasar, the mawla of the Banu Haritha, that Suwayd ibn an-Nu’mantold him that he went with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, on the expedition to Khaybar. When they reached as-Sahba’,which was near Khaybar, “the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, stopped and prayed ‘Asr. He asked for food but only parchedbarley (sawiq) was brought, so he asked for it to be moistened. TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ate and we atewith him. Then he got up to do Maghrib and rinsed his mouth out and we rinsedout ours. Then he prayed without repeating wudu.”

[cf. Bukhari 206]

21 Yahya related to me from Malik that both Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir andSafwan ibn Sulaym transmitted to him from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Harithat-Taymi from Rabi’a ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al-Hudayr that he had eaten an eveningmeal with ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab who then prayed without doing wudu.

22 Yahya related to me from Malik from Damra ibn Sa’id al-Mazini from Abanibn ‘Uthman that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan ate bread and meat, rinsed his mouthout, washed his hands and wiped his face with them, and then prayed withoutdoing wudu.

23 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that ‘Ali ibn Abi Taliband ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas did not do wudu after eating cooked food.

24 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that he asked ‘Abdullahibn ‘Amir ibn Rabi’a whether a man who did wudu for prayer and then ate cookedfood had to wudu’ again. He said, “I saw my father do that without doingwudu.”

25 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Nu’aym Wahb ibn Kaysan that heheard Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ansari saying, “I saw Abu Bakr as-Siddiq eatmeat and then pray without doing wudu.”

26 Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir that theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was invitedto eat, and some bread and meat was brought to him. He ate some of it, andthen did wudu and prayed. Then more of the same food was brought and he atesome more and then prayed without doing wudu.

[Mursal hadith. Abu Dawud has it from Jabir. at-Tirmidhi reports it.]

27 It was related to me from Malik from Mua ibn ‘Uqba from ‘Abd ar-Rahmanibn Yazid al-Ansari that when Anas ibn Malik came back from Iraq, Abu Talhaand Ubayy ibn Ka’b visited him. He brought them some cooked food and theyate, and then Anas got up and did wudu’. Abu Talha and Ubayy ibn Ka’b asked,”What’s this, Anas? Is it an Iraqi custom?” and Anas said, “I wish I hadnot done it.” (i.e. wudu). Abu Talha and Ubayy ibn Ka’b both got up and prayedwithout doing wudu.

 

2.6 Wudu in General

 

28 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father thatthe Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was askedabout cleaning after excretion. He replied, “Are any of you unable to findthree stones?”

[mursal. Abu Dawud reports it from ‘A’isha, and it is in an-Nasa’i]

29 Yahya related to me from Malik from al-‘Ala’ ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman from hisfather from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, went to the burial grounds and said, “Peace be uponyou, home of a people who believe! We shall be among you, Allah willing.I wish that I had seen our brothers!” The people with him said, “Messengerof Allah! Are we not your brothers?” “No,” he said, “You are my companions.Our brothers are those who have not yet come. And I will precede them tothe Hawd.” (The Hawd: the watering place of the Prophet, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, from which he will give to the people of his communityon the day of rising.) They asked him, “Messenger of Allah! How will yourecognise those of your community who come after you?” He said, “Does nota man who has horses with white legs and white blazes on their foreheadsamong totally black horses recognise which ones are his own?” They said,”Of course, Messenger of Allah.” He went on, “Even so will they come on theday of rising with white marks on their foreheads, hands and feet from wudu,and I will precede them to the Hawd. Some men will be driven away from theHawd as if they were straying camels and I shall call out to them, ‘Willyou not come? Will you not come? Will you not come?’ and someone will say,’They changed things after you,’ so I shall say, ‘Then away with them, awaywith them, away with them!’ ”

[In Muslim]

30 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwafrom his father from Humran, the mawla of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, that ‘Uthmanibn ‘Affan was once sitting on the Maqa’id (the benches surrounding the mosquein Madina, or else a stone near ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan’s house where he sat todiscuss with people), when the mu’adhdhin came and told him that it was timefor the ‘Asr prayer. He called for water and performed wudu. Then he said,”By Allah, I shall tell you something which I would not tell you if it werenot in the Book of Allah. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, say, ‘Anyone who does wudu, and does it well, andthen does the prayer, will be forgiven everything that he does between thenand the time when he prays the next prayer.’ ”

Yahya said that Malik said, “I believe he meant this ayat: ‘Establishthe prayer at the two ends of the day and in the first part of the night.Good actions eradicate bad actions. This is a reminder for people who payheed.'” (11:114).

[cf Bukhari 158]

31 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from ‘Ata’ ibn Yasarfrom ‘Abdullah as-Sanabihi that the Messenger of the Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, said, “The believing slave does wudu and as he rinseshis mouth the wrong actions leave it. As he cleans his nose the wrong actionsleave it. As he washes his face, the wrong actions leave it, even from underneathhis eyelashes. As he washes his hands the wrong actions leave them, evenfrom underneath his fingernails. As he wipes his head the wrong actions leaveit, even from his ears. And as he washes his feet the wrong actions leavethem, even from underneath the toenails of both his feet.” He added, “Thenhis walking to the mosque and his prayer are an extra reward for him.”

[In an-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah]

32 Yahya related to me from Malik from Suhayl ibn Abi Salih from his fatherfrom Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, said, “The Muslim (or the believer) does wudu and as he washeshis face every wrong action he has seen with his eyes leaves with the water(or the last drop of water). As he washes his hands every wrong action hehas done with his hands leaves with the water (or the last drop of water).And as he washes his feet every wrong action his feet have walked to leaveswith the water (or the last drop of water) so that he comes away purifiedof wrong actions.”

[In Muslim]

33 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn ‘Abdullahibn Abi Talha that Anas ibn Malik said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, when it was near the time of ‘Asr. Peoplewere looking for water for wudu’ but could not find any. Then the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought some water ina vessel. He put his hand into that vessel and told them all to do wudu’from it.” Anas added, “I saw water gushing up from under his fingers. Thenall of them to the last man did wudu.”

[cf Bukhari 167]

34 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nu’aym ibn ‘Abdullah al-Madani al-Mujmirthat he heard Abu Hurayra say, “If someone does wudu and does it correctlyand then goes off intending to do the prayer, he is in prayer as long ashe intends to do the prayer. A good action is written for every alternatestep he makes and a wrong action is erased for the other. When you hear theiqama do not lengthen your stride, and the one who has the greatest rewardis the one whose house is furthest away.” They said, “Why, Abu Hurayra?”He replied, “Because of the greater number of steps.”

[Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Barr mentions that Malik and others said that Nu’aym has manytraditions from Abu Hurayra in the mawquf form.]

35 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that he heard someoneask Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab about washing off excreta with water. Sa’id said,”That is the way women wash.”

36 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad fromal-A’raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “If a dog drinks from a vessel belonging to oneof you, he should wash it seven times.”

[cf Bukhari 170]

37 Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Try to go straight, althoughyou will not be able to do so. Act, and the best of your actions is the prayer.And only a believer is constant in his wudu.”

[mursal. Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Barr relates it from Thawban, and Ibn Majah has it.]

 

2.7 Wiping the Head and Ears

 

38 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedtwo fingers to take up water to his ears.

39 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Jabir ibn ‘Abdullahal-Ansari was asked about wiping over the turban. He said, “Not unless youhave wiped over your hair with water.”

40 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that Abu ‘Urwa ibnaz-Zubayr used to take off his turban and wipe his head with water.

41 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that she saw Safiyya bint Abi’Ubayd, the wife of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, remove her head-covering and wipeher head with water. Nafi’ was a child at the time.

Malik was asked about someone who did wudu but forgot to wipe his head untilthe water had dried. He said, “I consider that he should wipe his head andthen repeat the prayer if he has already performed it.”

Malik was asked about wiping over the turban and the head-covering. He said,”Neither the man nor the woman should wipe over the turban or the head-covering.They should wipe over the head itself.”

 

2.8 Wiping over Leather Socks

 

42 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from ‘Abbad ibn Ziyad,a descendant of al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba from his father from al-Mughira ibnShu’ba that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,went to relieve himself during the expedition of Tabuk. Mughira said, “Iwent with him, taking water. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, came back and I poured out the water for him. Hewashed his hands and then went to push his arms out of the sleeves of hisgarment, but could not do so because of their narrowness. So he brought themout from underneath his garment. Then he washed his arms, wiped his headand wiped over his leather socks. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, returned and ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Awf was leadingthe people in prayer, and he had already finished one rak’a with them. TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed the remainingrak’a with them to everyone’s concern. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, finished he said, ‘You have acted correctly.'”

[cf. Bukhari 4156]

43 Yahya related to me from Malik that Nafi’ and ‘Abdullah ibn Dinar toldhim that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar arrived at Kufa and went to Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas,who was the Amir of Kufa at that time. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar saw him wipingover his leather socks and disapproved of it. So Sa’d said to him, “Ask yourfather when you get back.” ‘Abdullah returned but forgot to ask ‘Umar aboutthe matter until Sa’d arrived and said, “Have you asked your father?” andhe said, “No.” ‘Abdullah then asked ‘Umar and ‘Umar replied, “If your feetare ritually pure when you put them in the leather socks then you can wipeover the socks.” ‘Abdullah said, “What about if we have just come from relievingourselves?” ‘Umar said, “Yes, even if you have just come from relievingyourself.”

44 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar urinatedin the market place and then did wudu, washing his face and hands and wipinghis head. Then as soon as he had come into the mosque, he was called to prayover a dead person, so he wiped over his leather socks and prayed.

45 Yahya related to me from Malik that Sa’id ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ruqayshsaid, “I saw Anas ibn Malik come and squat and urinate. Then water was broughtand he did wudu. He washed his face, then his arms to the elbows, and thenhe wiped his head and wiped over his leather socks. Then he came to the mosqueand prayed.”

Yahya said that Malik was asked whether someone who did wudu for prayer andthen put on his leather socks, and then urinated and took them off and putthem back on again, should begin wudu afresh. Malik replied, “He should takeoff his socks and wash his feet. Only someone who puts on leather socks whenhis feet are (already) ritually purified by wudu can wipe over them. Someonewho puts on leather socks when his feet are not ritually purified by wudu,should not wipe over them.”

Yahya said that Malik was asked about someone who did wudu with his leathersocks on and forgot to wipe over them until the water was dry and he hadprayed, and he said, “He should wipe over his socks and repeat the prayerbut not repeat wudu.”

Malik was asked about someone who washed his feet and put on his leathersocks and then started doing wudu, and he said, “He should take off his socksand do wudu and wash his feet.”

 

2.9 How to Wipe over Leather Socks

 

46 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that he saw his fatherwiping over his leather socks. He said, “When he wiped over his socks hewould never do more than wipe the tops and he would not wipe the bottoms.”

47 Yahya related to me that Malik asked Ibn Shihab how to wipe over leathersocks. Ibn Shihab put one hand under the sock and his other hand above thesock and then passed them over it.

Yahya said that Malik said, “Of all that I have heard about the matter Ilike what Ibn Shihab said the most.”

 

 

2.10 Nosebleeds in the Prayer

 

48 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar wouldleave and do wudu if he had a nosebleed and then return and complete hisprayer without saying anything.

49 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas usedto have nose-bleeds and would leave to wash off the blood. He would thenreturn and complete his prayer.

50 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn ‘Abdullah Qusayt al-Laythithat he saw Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab having a nosebleed while praying. He wentoff to the room of Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, and water was brought to him and he did wudu.’ He thenreturned and completed his prayer.

 

2.11 Nosebleeds in General

 

51 Yahya related to me that ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Harmala al-Aslami said, “Isaw Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab with his nose bleeding and the blood was pouringout of it so that his fingers were all red from the blood coming out of hisnose, and prayed without doing wudu.

52 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Mujabbar thathe saw Salim ibn ‘Abdullah with blood running from his nose so that his fingerswere all coloured red. Then he rubbed his nose and he prayed without doingwudu.”

 

2.12 Bleeding from a Wound or a Nosebleed

 

53 Yahya related to me from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father that al-Miswaribn Makhrama told him that he had visited ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab on the nighthe was stabbed and had woken him up for Subh and ‘Umar had said, “Yes. Whoeverstops doing the prayer will get nothing from Islam,” and he did the prayerwith blood pouring from his wound.

54 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that Sa’id ibn al-Musayyabwas asked, “What do you say about someone who is afflicted by a nosebleedwhich does not stop?” Malik stated that Yahya ibn Sa’id said that Sa’id ibnal-Musayyab said, “I say that he should signal with his head.” (i.e. insteadof doing sajda or ruku’.)

Yahya said that Malik said, “That is what I like most out of what I haveheard about the matter.”

 

2.13 Wudu on Account of Prostatic Fluid

 

55 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’n-Nadr, the mawla of ‘Abdullahibn ‘Ubaydullah, from Sulayman ibn Yasar from al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad that’Ali ibn Abi Talib told him to ask the Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, what a man should do, who, when close to his wife,had a flow of prostatic fluid. ‘Ali explained that the daughter of the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was living with him thenand he was too shy to ask for himself. Al-Miqdad said, “I asked the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about it, and he said,”When that happens, wash your genitals with water and do wudu as for prayer.”

[Muslim has it from Ibn ‘Abbas.]

56 Yahya related to me from Zayd ibn Aslam from his father that ‘Umar ibnal-Khattab said, “I find it dropping from me like small beads. When thathappens, wash your penis and do wudu as for prayer.”

57 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from his father thatJundub, the mawla of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ayyash, said, “I asked ‘Abdullah ibn’Umar about prostatic fluid and he said, ‘When you find it, wash your genitalsand do wudu as for prayer.’ ”

 

2.14 Indulgence about not having to do Wudu on account of ProstaticFluid

 

58 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id that he was listeningto Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab and a man questioned him saying, “I discover a dischargewhen I am praying. Should I leave?” Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab said to him, “Evenif it were to flow on my leg I would not leave until I had finished the prayer.”

59 Yahya related to me from Malik that as-Salt ibn Zuyayd said, “I askedSulayman ibn Yasar about a discharge I discovered. He said, ‘Wash what isunder your garments with water and forget about it.’ ”

 

2.15 Wudu on Account of Touching the Genitals

 

60 Yahya related to me from Malik that ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammadibn ‘Amr ibn Hazim heard ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayr saying, “I went to see Marwanibn al-Hakam and we were talking about what you had to do wudu for, and Marwanmentioned that you had to do wudu if you touched your penis.” ‘Urwa continued,”I hadn’t known that.” Marwan ibn al-Hakam said that Busra bint Safwan hadtold him that she heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, say, “If any of you touches his penis he should do wudu’.”

[Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah]

61 Yahya related to me from Malik from Isma’il ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’d ibnAbi Waqqas that Mus’ab ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas said, “I was holding the Bookfor Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas and I rubbed myself. Sa’d enquired whether I hadtouched my penis. I replied that I had and he told me to get up and do wudu.So I got up and did wudu and then returned.”

62 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto say, “If you touch your penis you have to do wudu’.”

63 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that his father usedto say, “If any of you touches his penis he has to do wudu’.”

64 Yahya related from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Salim ibn ‘Abdullah said,”I saw my father ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, do ghusl and then do wudu’. I saidto him, ‘Father, isn’t ghusl enough for you?’ He said, ‘Of course, but sometimesI touch my penis, so I do wudu’.’ ”

65 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that Salim ibn ‘Abdullah said,”I was with ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar on a journey and after the sun had risenI saw him do wudu’ and then pray. So I said to him, ‘This isn’t a prayerthat you normally do.’ He said, ‘After I had done wudu for Subh, I touchedmy genitals. Then I forgot to do wudu. So I did wudu again and repeated myprayer.’ ”

 

2.16 Wudu’ on Account of a Man Kissing his Wife

 

66 Yahya related to me from Malik from ibn Shihab from Salim ibn ‘Abdullahthat his father ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar used to say, “A man’s kissing his wifeand fondling her with his hands are part of intercourse. Someone who kisseshis wife or fondles her with his hand must do wudu.”

67 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’udused to say, “Wudu is necessary if a man kisses his wife.”

68 Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab used to say, “Wudu is necessaryif a man kisses his wife.”

Nafi’ said that Malik said, “That is what I like most out of what I haveheard.”

 

2.17 How to do Ghusl for Major Ritual Impurity

 

69 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwafrom his father from ‘A’isha, Umm al-Muminin, that whenever the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did ghusl for major ritualimpurity (janaba), he would begin by washing his hands, and then dowudu as for prayer. He would then put his fingers in the water and rub theroots of his hair with them. Then he would pour as much water as two handscan hold on to his head three times, and over the entire surface of his skin.

[cf. Bukhari 245]

70 Yahya related to me from Malik from ibn Shihab from’Urwa ibn az-Zubayr from ‘A’isha, Umm al-Muminin, that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to perform ghusl for majorritual impurity from a vessel called a faraq.

[cf Bukhari 247]

[A faraq holds two or three sa’s.]

71 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that when ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umarused to do ghusl for major ritual impurity he would begin by pouring wateron his right hand and washing it. Then, in orrder, he would wash his genitals,rinse his mouth, snuff water in and out of his nose, wash his face and splashhis eyes with water. Then he would wash his right arm and then his left,and after that he would wash his head. He would finish by having a completewash and pouring water all over himself.

72 Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard that ‘A’isha was asked abouthow a woman should do ghusl for major ritual impurity. She said, “She shouldscoop water over her head with both hands three times and rub the roots ofher hair with her hands.”

 

2.18 Ghusl from the Two “Circumcised Parts” Meeting

 

73 Yahya related to me frrrm Malik from ibn Shihab from Sa’id ibn al-Musayyabthat ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and ‘A’isha, the wife oftom Malik from ibn Shihab from Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaband ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, used to say, “When the circumcised part touchesthe circumcised part, ghusl is obligatory.”

74 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’n-Nadr, the mawla of ‘Umar ibn’Abdullah that Abu Salama ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Awf related that he hadasked ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, what made ghusl obligatory. She said, “Do you know what you are like,Abu Salama? You are like a chick when it hears the cocks crowing and so crowswith them. When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part, ghusl isobligatory.”

[At-Tirmidhi also transmits it.]

75 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from Sa’id ibn al-Musayyabthat Abu Musa al-Ash’ari came to ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, and said to her, “The disagreement of thecompanions about a matter which I hate to bring before you has distressedme.” She said, “What is that? You did not ask your mother about it, so askme.” He said, “A man penetrates his wife, but becomes listless and does notejaculate.” She said, “When the circumcised part passes the circumcised partghusl is obligatory.” Abu Musa added, “I shall never ask anyone about thisafter you.”

[Ibn ‘Abdu’l-Barr says that this hadith is mawquf. Muslim also transmitsit.]

76 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from ‘Abdullah ibnKa’b, the mawla of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, that Mahmud ibn Labid al-Ansari askedZayd ibn Thabit about a man who penetrated his wife but became listless anddid not ejaculate. Zayd ibn Thabit said, “He does ghusl.” Mahmud said tohim, “Ubayy ibn Ka’b used not to think that ghusl was necessary,” but Zaydibn Thabit said, “Ubayy ibn Ka’b withdrew from that position before he died.”

77 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto say, “When the circumcised part touches the circumcised part, ghusl isobligatory.”

 

2.19 Wudu’ of a Person in a State of Major Ritual Impurity(Janaba)

 

78 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abdullah ibn Dinarthat ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar related that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab mentioned to theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that he wouldsometimes become junub in the night. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, said to him, “Do wudu and wash your penis, and thensleep.”

[cf Bukhari 286]

79 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father that’A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,used to say, “If you have intercourse with your wife and then wish to goto sleep before doing ghusl, do not sleep until you have done wudu as forprayer.”

[In Muslim]

80 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, ifhe wished to sleep or eat while junub, would wash his face and his arms tothe elbows and wipe his head. Then he would eat or sleep.

 

2.20 The repetition of the prayer by a person in a state of major ritualimpurity, his doing ghusl, when he has prayed without remembering it, andhis washing his garments

 

81 Yahya related to me from Malik from Isma’il ibn AbiHakim that ‘Ata’ ibn Yasar told him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, said the takbir in one of the prayersand then indicated to them with his hand to stay in place. He left and thenreturned with traces of water on his skin.

[Mursal, but related by al-Bukhari 271 and Muslim from Abu Hurayra]

82 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that Zubayd ibn as-Saltsaid, “I went with ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab to Juruf and he looked down and noticedthat he had had a wet dream and had prayed without doing ghusl. He exclaimed,’By Allah, I realise that I have had a wet dream and did not know it andhave not done ghusl.’ So he did ghusl and washed off whatever he saw on hisgarment, and sprinkled with water whatever he did not see. Then he gave theadhan or the iqama and prayed in the mid-morning.”

83 Yahya related to me from Malik from Isma’il ibn Abi Hakim from Sulaymanibn Yasar that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab went out early in the morning to hisland in Juruf and found semen on his garment. He said, “I have been triedwith wet dreams since I was entrusted with governing the people.” He didghusl and washed any semen that he saw from his garment, and then prayedafter the sun had risen.

84 Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Sa’id from Sulayman ibnYasar that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab led the people in the Subh prayer and thenwent out to his land in Juruf and found semen on his clothes. He said, “Sincewe have been eating rich meat our veins have become fulsome.” He did ghusl,washed the semen from his clothing, and did his prayer again.

85 Yahya relatedto me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his father fromYahya ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Hatib that he had set off for ‘umra with ‘Umaribn al-Khattab in a party of riders among whom was ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. ‘Umaribn al-Khattab dismounted for a rest late at night on a certain road neara certain oasis. ‘Umar had a wet dream when it was almost dawn and therewas no water among the riding party. He rode until he came to some waterand then he began to wash off what he saw of the semen until it had gone.’Amr ibn al-‘As said to him, “It is morning and there are clothes with us,so allow your garment to be washed.” Umar ibn al-Khattab said to him, “Iam surprised at you, ‘Amr ibn al-‘As! Even if you can find clothes, is everybodybe able to find them? By Allah, if I were to do that, it would become a sunna.No, I wash what I see, and I sprinkle with water what I do not see.”

Malik spoke about a man who found traces of a wet dream on his clothes anddid not know when it had occurred and did not remember anything he had seenin his sleep. He said, “Let the intention of his ghusl be from the time whenhe last slept, and if he has prayed since that last sleep he should repeatit. This is because sometimes a man has a wet dream and sees nothing, andsometimes he sees something but does not have an emission. So if he findsliquid on his garment he must do ghusl. This is because ‘Umar repeated whathe had prayed after the time he had last slept and not what was before it.”

 

2.21 Ghusl of a woman when she experiences the same as a man in hersleep

 

86 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from ‘Urwa ibn az-Zubayrthat Umm Sulayman asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, “Should a woman do ghusl when she experiences the same as a manin her sleep?” The Messenger of Allah said to her, “Shame on you! Does awoman see that?” (i.e. a liquid.) ‘A’isha said to her, “May your right handbe full of dust. From where does family resemblance come?”

[Reported in Muslim]

87 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwafrom his father from Zaynab bint Abi Salama that Umm Salama, the wife ofthe Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Umm Salama,the wife of Abu Talha al-Ansari, came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, and said, “Messenger of Allah! Allah is notshy about the truth – does a woman have to do ghusl if she has had an eroticdream?” He said, ‘Yes, if she has a visible discharge.'”

[cf Bukhari 130]

 

2.22 Ghusl for Major Ritual Impurity

 

88 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto say, “There is no harm in doing ghusl with water that has been used byone’s wife as long as she is not menstruating or in a state of major ritualimpurity (janaba).”

89 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto sweat in a garment while he was in janaba and then pray with it on.

90 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that the slave girls of ‘Abdullahibn ‘Umar used to wash his feet and bring him a mat of palm-leaves whilethey were menstruating.

Malik was asked whether a man who had wives and slave girls could haveintercourse with all of them before he did ghusl. He said, “There is no harmin a man having intercourse with two of his slave girls before he does ghusl.It is disapproved of, however, to go to a free woman on another’s day. Thereis no harm having intercourse first with one slave girl and then with anotherwhen one is junub.”

Malik was asked about a man who was junub and water was put down for himto do ghusl with. Then he forgot and put his finger into it to find out whetherit was hot or cold. Malik said, “If no impurity has soiled his fingers, Ido not consider that that makes the water impure.”

 

2.23 Tayammum

 

91 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibnal-Qasim from his father that ‘A’isha, Umm al-Muminin, said, “We went outon a journey with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, and, when we came to Bayda’ or Dhat al-Jaysh, a necklace of mine broke.The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stoppedto look for it and the people stopped with him. There was no water thereand the people were not carrying any with them, so they came to Abu Bakras-Siddiq and said, ‘Don’t you see what ‘A’isha has done? She has made theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the peoplestop when there is no water nearby and they are not carrying any with them.'”

‘A’isha continued, “Abu Bakr came and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, had fallen asleep with his head on my thigh. AbuBakr said, ‘You have made the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, and the people stop where there is no water nearby and theyare not carrying any with them.’ ”

She continued, “Abu Bakr remonstrated with me and said whatever Allah willedhim to say, and began to poke me in the waist. The only thing that stoppedme from moving was that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, had his head on my thigh. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, slept until morning found him with no water. Allah,the Blessed and Exalted, sent down the ayat of tayammum and so they did tayammum.Usayd ibn Hudayr said, ‘This is not the first blessing from you, O familyof Abu Bakr.'”

‘A’isha added, “We roused the camel I had been on and found the necklaceunder it.”

[cf Bukhari 327]

Malik was asked whether someone who did tayammum for one prayer should dotayammum when the time of the next prayer came or whether the first tayammumwas enough. He said, “No, he does tayammum for every prayer, because he hasto look for water for every prayer. If he looks for it and does not findit then he does tayammum.”

Malik was asked whether a man who did tayammum could lead others in prayerif they were in wudu. He said, “I prefer that someone else should lead them.However, I see no harm in it if he does lead them in prayer.”

Yahya said that Malik said that a man who did tayammum because he could notfind any water, and then stood and said the takbir and entered into the prayer,and then someone came with some water, did not stop his prayer but completedit with tayammum and did wudu for future prayers.

Yahya said that Malik said, “Whoever rises for prayer and does not find waterand so does what Allah has ordered him to do of tayammum has obeyed Allah.Someone who does find water is neither purer than him nor more perfect inprayer, because both have been commanded and each does as Allah has commanded.What Allah has commanded as far as wudu is concerned is for the one who findswater, and tayammum is for the one who does not find water before he entersinto the prayer.”

Malik said that a man who was in a state of major ritual impurity could dotayammum and read his portion of Qur’an and do voluntary prayers as longas he did not find any water. This applied only to circumstances in whichit was allowable to pray with tayammum.

 

2.24 How to do Tayammum

 

92 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar andhe were approaching Juruf. When they got to Mirbad, ‘Abdullah got down anddid tayammum with some good earth. He wiped his face, and his arms to theelbows, and then prayed.

93 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar usedto do tayammum up to his elbows.

Malik was asked about how tayammum was done and what parts were covered andhe said, “Strike the ground once for the face and once for the arms and wipethem to the elbows.”

 

 

2.25 Tayammum of Someone in a State of Major Ritual Impurity

 

94 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Harmala that aman asked Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab about what a man who was junub and had donetayammum should do when he found water. Sa’id said, “When he finds waterhe must do ghusl for what comes after.”

Malik said about someone who had a wet dream while he was on a journey andthere was only enough water for wudu and he was not thirsty so he did notneed to use it for drinking. “Let him wash his genitals, and whatever thesemen has fallen on, with the water and then he does tayammum with good earthas Allah has ordered him.”

Malik was asked whether a man who was junub and wished to do tayammum butcould only find salty earth could do tayammum with that earth, and whetherit was disapproved of to pray on salty earth. He said, “There is no harmin praying on salty earth or in using it to do tayammum because Allah theBlessed and Exalted has said, ‘…and do tayammum with good earth.’ Oneis purified by tayammum with everything that is earth, whether it is saltyor otherwise.”

 

2.26 What is permitted to a man from his wife when she is menstruating

 

95 Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that a man questionedthe Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying,”What is permitted to me from my wife when she is menstruating?” The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Let her wrap herwaist-wrapper round herself tightly, and then what is above that is yourconcern.”

[Abu Dawud transmits it from ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d al-Ansari]

96 Yahya related to me from Malik from Rabi’a ibn Abi ‘Abd ar-Rahman thaton one occasion ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, was sleeping with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, in one garment, when suddenly she jumped up sharply.The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said toher, “What’s the matter with you? Are you losing blood?” meaning menstruating.She said, “Yes.” He said, “Wrap your waist-wrapper tightly about you, andreturn to your sleeping-place.”

[Mursal hadith, Al-Bukhari transmits a similar hadith from Umm Salama 294]

97 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ that ‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Abdullahibn ‘Umar sent a question to ‘A’isha asking her, “May a man fondle his wifewhen she is menstruating?” She replied, “Let her wrap her waist-wrapper aroundher lower part and then he may fondle her if he wishes.”

98 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Salim ibn ‘Abdullahand Sulayman ibn Yasar were asked whether the husband of a menstruating womancould have sexual intercourse with her when she saw that she was pure butbefore she had had a ghusl. They said, “No, not until she has had a ghusl.”

 

2.27 The Purity of a Woman after Menstruation

 

99 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Alqama ibn Abi ‘Alqama that his mother,the mawla of ‘A’isha, Umm al-Muminin, said, “Women used to send little boxesto ‘A’isha, Umm al-Muminin, with a piece of cotton cloth in each one on whichwas yellowness from menstrual blood, asking her about the prayer. She saidto them, “Do not be hasty until you see a white discharge.” By that she meantpurity from menses.

100 Yahya related to me from Malik from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr from his paternalaunt from the daughter of Zayd ibn Thabit that she had heard that women usedto ask for lamps in the middle of the night to check their purity. She wouldcriticise them for this saying, “Women never used to do this,” i.e. in thetime of the Companions.

101 Malik was asked whether a woman whose period had finished could do tayammumto purify herself if she could not find water and he said, “Yes, becauseshe is like some one in a state of major ritual impurity, who, if he cannotfind water, does tayammum.”

 

2.28 Menstruation in General

 

102 Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that ‘A’isha, the wifeof the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said that a pregnantwoman who noticed bleeding left off from prayer.

103 Yahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab about a pregnantwoman who noticed bleeding. Ibn Shihab replied, “She refrains from prayer.”

Yahya said that Malik said, “That is what is done in our community.”

104 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwafrom his father that ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “I used to comb the head of the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while I was menstruating.”

[cf. Bukhari 291]

105 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwafrom his father from Fatima bint al-Mundhir ibn az-Zubayr that Asma bintAbu Bakr as-Siddiq said, “A woman asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, saying, ‘What do you think a woman shoulddo if menstrual blood gets on her clothes?’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, said, ‘If menstrual blood gets onto your clothes,she should gather up the place in her fingers, rub it, and wash it with waterand then she can pray in it.’ ”

[cf. Bukhari 301]

 

2.29 Bleeding as if Menstruating

 

106 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwafrom his father that ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “Fatima bint Abi Hubaysh said, ‘Messenger of Allah,I never become pure – should I abandon the prayer?’ The Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘That is due to a vein, notmenstruation. So when your period comes, leave off from the prayer, and whenit stops, wash the blood from yourself and pray.’ ”

[cf. Bukhari 300]

107 Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi’ from Sulayman ibn Yasar fromUmm Salama, , the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, that a certain woman in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, used to bleed profusely, so Umm Salama consultedthe Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for her,and he said, “She should calculate the number of nights and days a monththat she used to menstruate before it started happening, and she should leaveoff from prayer for that much of the month. When she has completed that sheshould do ghusl, bind her private parts with a cloth, and then pray.”

[Also in Abu Dawud and an-Nasa’i]

108 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa from his fatherfrom Zaynab bint Abu Salama that she saw Zaynab bint Jahsh, the wife of ‘Abdar-Rahman ibn ‘Awf, and she used to bleed as if menstruating. She would doghusl and pray.

109 Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawla of Abu Bakr ibn’Abd ar-Rahman that al-Qa’qa’ ibn Hakim and Zayd ibn Aslam sent him to Sa’idibn al-Musayyab to ask how a woman who was bleeding as if menstruating shoulddo ghusl. Sa’id said, “She does a ghusl to cover from the end of one periodto the end of the next, and does wudu for every prayer, and if bleeding overtakesher she should bind her private parts.”

110 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwa that his fathersaid, “A woman who bleeds as if menstruating only has to do one ghusl, andthen after that she does wudu for each prayer.”

Yahya said that Malik said, “The position with us is that when a woman whobleeds as if menstruating starts to do the prayer again, her husband canhave sexual intercourse with her. Similarly, if a woman who has given birthsees blood after she has reached the fullest extent that bleeding normallyrestrains women, her husband can have sexual intercourse with her and sheis in the same position as a woman who bleeds as if menstruating.”

Yahya said that Malik said, “The position with us concerning a woman whobleeds as if menstruating is founded on the hadith of Hisham ibn ‘Urwa fromhis father, and it is what I prefer the most of what I have heard about thematter.”

 

2.30 The Urine of an Infant Boy

 

111 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn ‘Urwafrom his father that ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “An infant boy was brought to the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it urinated on him. TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called for somewater and rubbed over the urine with it.”

[cf. Bukhari 220]

112 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from’Ubaydullah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Utba ibn Mas’ud from Umm Qays ibn Mihsan thatshe brought a baby boy of hers who was not yet eating food to the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he sat him in hislap and and the boy urinated on his clothes, so the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, called for some water and sprinkledover the spot but did not wash it.

[cf. Bukhari 221]

 

2.31 Urinating Standing and Otherwise

 

113 Yahya related to me from Malik that Yahya ibn Sa’id said, “A Bedouincame into the mosque and uncovered his private parts to urinate. The peoplecalled out to him and began to raise their voices but the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Let him be.’ So they lethim be and he urinated. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, ordered a bucketful of water to be brought and it waspoured on the place.”

[cf. Bukhari 219; also in Muslim]

114 Yahya related to me from Malik that ‘Abduillah ibn Dinar said, “I saw’Abdullah ibn ‘Umar urinating while standing.”

Yahya said that Malik was asked if any hadith had come down about washingthe private parts from urine and faeces and he said, “I have heard that someof those who have passed away used to wash themselves from faeces. I liketo wash my private parts from urine.”

 

2.32 The Tooth-stick (Siwak)

 

115 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Ibn as-Sabbaq thatthe Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said ina Jumu’a, “Muslims! Allah has made this day a festival day so do ghusl, andit will do no harm if whoever has perfume to applies some of it, and usea tooth-stick.”

[Also ibn Ibn Majah]

116 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad fromal-A’raj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, “Were it not that I would be overburdening mycommunity I would have ordered them to use the tooth-stick.”

[cf Bukhari 847]

117 Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Humayd ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahmanibn ‘Awf that Abu Hurayra said, “Were it not that he would have beenoverburdening his community he (the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace) would have ordered them to use the tooth-stick witheach wudu.”

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